This collection includes two special features to aid navigation both within and across records. First, the record numbers have been devised so that results pages–the lists of records produced by searches or by clicking hyperlinks–automatically sort records into their various subcollections. Second, the link called Identifier.Zoom allows you to magnify images and to navigate within those “zoomed” images with greater ease than the Content DM navigation tools.


The East Asia Image Collection makes use of the following metadata fields:


Titles in square brackets are the editor’s translations of Japanese titles, or assigned titles. Titles without brackets are transcribed verbatim from a record’s source material or are the English titles provided in bilingual sources.

Each title is preceded by a bracketed 6-digit record number (i.e. [wa0018] or [gr0195]). Record numbers are in the Titlefield to facilitate sorting of records listed as search results. The two-letter prefix indicates a subcollection: gr=Warner Taiwan Negativeslw=Michael Lewis Collectionnf=Scenic Taiwanjs=Warner Japan Slidests=Taiwan Photographic Monthly; and wa=Warner Taiwan Postcards. Four-digit numbers represent sequences within subcollections. Each subcollection begins with record number [xx0001]. The record numbers are NOT the numerals followed by a period to the left of the thumbnail on the browsing page. These other numerals, which are also next to the check-boxes, represent a record’s position within the results page. Hence, “results” numbers change each time a user performs a sorting function or uses the “compare” feature.Record numbersare stable. They are used for citation and cross-referencing.


Japanese titles are entered verbatim from Japanese source material. Sino-Japanese characters (kanji/hanzi) are generally entered as modern characters, even if the source material uses older forms.


Chinese titles are translations of Japanese or English titles. They appear in brackets since they are attributed, and do not appear on the artifacts themselves. Chinese titles are being added to images from China and Taiwan.


Korean titles are translations of Japanese or English titles. They appear in brackets since they are attributed, and do not appear on the artifacts themselves. Korean titles are being added to images from Korea.


The three-digit numerals to the left of each hyperlinked subject heading are Outline of Cultural Materials (OCM) subject codes. These are developed, updated, and maintained in the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) at Yale University


Information about source material added by the editor and/or contributors.


Printed information connected to the images in the record. These have been reproduced (misspellings and idiosyncratic orthography/spellings included) as faithfully as possible. Translated Japanese captions are indicated by square brackets.


Printed Japanese-language information connected to the images in the records.


Printed information on the backs of postcards that provides information relevant to dating the postcard itself (not the image).


Place names in Pinyin. Romanized Japanese, Wade-Giles, Kanji, Hanzi, and other commonly used Romanized Chinese equivalents are listed here.


There are several alternative Romanized spellings for Taiwanese ethnic groups. The following are the most generally used spellings, and are adopted for this website: Han, Atayal, Bunun, Saisiat, Sao, Tsou, Paiwan, Ami, Rukai, Puyuma, and Yami. This field is also used for Koreans, Chinese, Japanese, and other nationalities if either people, artifacts, or a built environment connected with these peoples appears in the card.


Names of Lafayette College students and faculty responsible for data input, translations, research, scanning, color correction, etc. In addition, this field lists names of experts who have provided content, criticisms, and other forms of assistance for a particular image.


Provides a list of records that use the exact same image. Numbers in brackets, such as [ip0002], for example, refer to records in the East Asian Image Collection.

BMC” stands for Busan Museum Collection. These numbers are taken from the eight-volume set published by the museum, Yu Sŭng-hun 유승훈. Sajin yŏpsŏ ro ponŭn kŭndae p’unggyŏng 사진엽서로보는근대풍경[The Looks of Modern Korea from Postcards].

MFA” stands for “Museum of Fine Arts” [Boston]. These numbers are taken from the MFA website. The corresponding records can be located by entering the record number in the search box at:

NCL” stands for “National Central Library” [Taipei, Taiwan]. These numbers are taken from the NCL website. The corresponding records can be located by entering the record number in the search box at:

Published images of the same or similar scenes, people, or objects, but shot from different angles at different times, ARE NOT included in this field. We are counting on users to alert the editor if these images appear in other publications, so we may create a “life history” of each image. Please send your identifications with citation information to and specify how you would like your name to appear in the contributor field.


Author and Year of book, magazine, or pamphlet that contains the same “image.” For this field, “image” is defined as the photograph that appears in the postcard, pamphlet or book. For example, if the photograph in a postcard appears in a book that depicts a differently designed postcard with the same photograph in it, we consider that a “match.”


Description of the material object captured by the digital image.


Publisher, printer, or distributor of postcards, albums, or commercial prints.


Photographers, painters, and editors associated with original images or sources.


Dimensions of source document (pages, postcards, prints).


The most recent possible date of the source document (the material object on the scanner).


The earliest possible date of the source document (the material object on the scanner).


The most recent possible date the photograph itself, later reproduced in an album or as a postcard.


The earliest possible date the photograph itself, later reproduced in an album or as a postcard.


It is difficult to isolate the precise date of publication for a postcard. However, formats dictated by postal regulations, cancellation marks, or written matter often provide upper or lower limits. For example, a “January 15, 1926” cancellation mark on a “1/3 divided back” postcard was published before 19260116 (Date.Artifact.Upper), but must have been published after 19070328 (March 28, 1907) (Date.Artifact.Lower). Limits are assigned to the images themselves (not the artifacts) when external evidence is available.


Record [lw0081] (The eighty-first record in the Michael Lewis Collection).









This postcard was published between March 1st, 1918 and February 14th, 1933. The photograph reproduced on the postcard was shot in January of 1915.

Dates are rendered in the format YYYY-MM-DD to facilitate sorting. For example, if a researcher seeks a chronological sequence of images or artifacts produced by a particular keyword or subject search, clicking one of the date fields in the header row of the CONTENTdm results page will accomplish this task. The editors are still in the process of assigning dates to the thousands of images in the collection.


If you have information about an image in this collection, either to identify its contents, report a sighting or citing in another printed version, or to suggest a revision to an entry, please consider collaborating on this project. Communications in Chinese, Japanese, or English are welcome. Send to General Editor Paul D. Barclay at Please include your name, email address, title/position, and an image # or image numbers to identify the images to which you refer. The editor will do his best to verify as much of the submitted information as possible, realizing that many contributors will far exceed him in expertise and authority.

Citation Formats

East Asia Image Collection. Easton, PA: Lafayette College, 2012. ([Date Accessed]), image [image #].

East Asia Image Collection, (Easton, PA: Lafayette College, 2012), ([Date Accessed]), image [image #].